BAC 2008


The Contribution of Civilizations

Part 1. Reading                                                                     (14 points)

   Read the text carefully then do the activities.

A)Comprehension                   (07 points)                                                                       

Each of the civilizations of the past contributed in a way or another to enhance the cultural and technical side of human communities. They all had achievements that gradually transformed the destiny of nations and turn them into highly organised groups having in their hands more efficient means that enabled them to develop a better capacity in the fight for survival and therefore to lead a more comfortable life.

The Chinese ,for example, were the first to show to the others how to combine intelligence and discipline in order to construct a dynamic society able to offer its inhabitants prosperity and security. The Egyptians in their turn managed to bring considerable improvements in the branches of farming, architecture, medicine, writing and religion. Despite the hostile environment where they evolved, they succeeded to impose their will-power and perseverance so as to gain their neighbours’ respect and immortalize their name in history.

    As for the Babylonians ,they devoted their skills to further the spheres of astronomy ,law-making, building, cattle breeding and land-working .The Phoenicians , too, helped in accomplishing exceptional advances in matters connected to ship-building, international trade and sailing across seas. When the Greeks arrived, they promoted mathematics, philosophy and democracy. They also gave a strong impetus to scientific research, rational thinking, mythology and artistic creations. In their wisdom, they went as far as using sport as a channel through which to consolidate peace and harmony among tribes and races. The Romans, as well, devoted themselves to elevate the fate of the human race. They dedicated their talent for the pursuit of arts, the construction of towns and public works, the laying of rules and political bodies, the expansion of commerce and the introduction of more effective strategies in the military field.

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